Geology and Mineral Resources serves as Virginia's geological survey. We perform investigations aimed at reducing risk from geologic hazards and encouraging sustainable development through the wise use of mineral, land, water and energy resources. In addition to publishing map and reports, we maintain repositories of geological and geophysical data, as well as rock, fossil and core samples. With our staff of experienced geoscientists, we are uniquely positioned to provide expert assistance in matters pertaining to the geology and mineral resources of the Commonwealth. Learn more about us »

Geologist working

Maps, Publications and Data

Geology and Mineral Resources provides geologic, energy and mineral resource information to its customers. Click image below to learn more.


Geology and Mineral Resources is currently working on a variety of projects related to geologic investigations throughout Virginia. In addition to researching mineral and energy resources, our geologists produce geologic maps to expand and improve our understanding of Virginia's complex and rich geologic history. Many of our projects are a collaborative effort between the professional science community and other state and federal agencies. Learn more here »

Rocks, Minerals and Fossils

Virginia has experienced a long and complex geologic history. Over a billion years of dynamic events have shaped the landscape we see today and influenced other aspects of Virginia's natural and cultural history. Each rock, mineral and fossil can help us read this fascinating geologic autobiography of Virginia. Click the links above to browse a few of the most common and popular rocks, fossils and minerals. Click on the image below to learn more. 

Economic Resources

Virginia's diverse geology provides a wealth of opportunities in the form of mineral and energy resources. The historic contributions of these resources to economic growth in Virginia is measured not only in the dollar value of the minerals produced each year, but also in the direct and indirect benefits of jobs created, support industries, new business opportunities and revenues for local governments providing community services. Click on the images below to learn more.

Virginia mineral resources

Geologic Hazards
Geologic Hazards

The term “geologic hazard” encompasses a broad range of naturally occurring circumstances that pose a threat to human health, safety and property. Some of these hazards occur as sudden and catastrophic events, while others are slow and insidious processes. Each depends on a unique set of geological conditions. Learn more about Geologic Hazards in Virginia here »

Land Use Planning

In 1996, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia amended state statutes governing localities’ comprehensive planning to include mineral resources among the key considerations in planning for future growth (Code of Virginia §15.2-2224).  Shortly thereafter, Virginia Energy responded with a proactive program to deliver geologic and mineral resources information to over 130 county, municipal and regional planning authorities to help meet the update schedules of the planning offices that typically review their comprehensive plan documents for needed changes every five years. Learn more about Land-Use Planning in Virginia here»